CO2 Extraction

Cannabis CO2 Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix) using supercritical fluid, such as CO2, as the extracting solvent. SFE can be used as a sample preparation step prior to further analysis by other techniques, or on a larger scale to either strip unwanted material from a product or collect a desired product. With cannabis, the goal is typically to collect CBD, THC, terpenes and other compounds while stripping away unwanted residues, like pesticides, chlorophyll and waxes, and leaving behind the biomass.

SFE with CO2 is rapid, simple and inexpensive; provides quantitative recovery of analytes without loss or degradation; yields a solution of the analyte that is sufficiently concentrated to permit the final measurement to be made without the need for concentration; and generates little or no laboratory wastes that require expensive disposal.  CO2 is easy to remove simply by reducing the pressure, leaving almost no trace. It is environmentally benign  ̶  non-toxic, non-flammable, odorless, tasteless, inert, and inexpensive. CO2 has been commonly used in decaffeination processes and more recently shown to be an effective supercritical solvent for extracting botanicals.

A major advantage of SFE with Co2 is that the extraction process can be finely tuned by a small reduction in temperature, or a slightly larger reduction in pressure, which will result in almost the entire solute precipitating out as the supercritical conditions are changed or made sub critical.

CO2 Extraction References

SAPKALE, G.N., PATIL, S.M., SURWASE U.S., P. K. BHATBHAGE, P.K., SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, Department of Pharmacognosy, ASPM,S K. T. Patil College of Pharmacy, Siddharth Nagar, Barshi Road, OSMANABAD – 413501 (M.S.) INDIA Int. J. Chem. Sci.: 8(2), 2010, 729-743
Krunoslav A., Jarni K., Barbir T., Vidović V., Vladić J., Bilic M., Jokic S., Supercritical CO2 extraction of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil, Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 76, December 2015, pages 472-478
Aladic K., Jokic S., Moslavac T., Tomas S.,, Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, Vo. 28 No. 4, 2014
Rovetto, L.J. and Aieta, N.V., 2017, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L., The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 129, pp.16-27
Bermejo, D.V., Ibáñez, E., Reglero, G. and Fornari, T., 2016, Effect of cosolvents (ethyl lactate, ethyl acetate and ethanol) on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine from green tea, The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 107, pp.507-512
Abrahamsson, V., Rodriguez-Meizoso, I. and Turner, C., 2015, Supercritical fluid extraction of lipids from linseed with on-line evaporative light scattering detection, Analytica chimica acta, 853, pp.320-327
Da Porto, C., Decorti, D. and Natolino, A., 2014, Separation of aroma compounds from industrial hemp inflorescences (Cannabis sativa L.) by supercritical CO2 extraction and on-line fractionation, Industrial Crops and Products, 58, pp.99-103
Porto C. D., Decorti D., Natolino A., Separation of aroma compounds from industrial hemp inflorescences (Cannabis sativa L.) by supercritical CO2 extraction and on-line fractionation, Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 58, July 2014, pages 99-103
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